The manipulation of plant reproduction is the basis for plant propagation which, in turn, is one of the fundamental and characteristic activities of horticulture. Any individual working with horticultural crops must understand the natural and induced genetic variation in such plants and how this variation is managed. To be effective in propagating plants both the biological bases and the commercial practices must be studied and understood. All aspects of plant propagation will be studied including methods of propagating by seeds, bulbs, divisions, layers, cuttings, budding, grafting, and micropropagation. The timing, techniques, and materials for making cuttings, environmental conditions, and media requirements for rooting cuttings of ornamental plants, fruit trees, shrubs, and flowering plants will also be studied. Various propagation structures, soils, and fertilizer requirements will be considered. Emphasis is placed on the basic principles of plant propagation to provide an adequate background in the areas of agronomy, horticulture, forestry, and other disciplines of plant science.